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Biografía de Isaac Newton PDF Imprimir E-Mail

Isaac Newton, el faro de la ciencia

En un libro titulado Cien preguntas básica sobre la ciencia (Alianza Editorial nº 663), Isaac Asimov formula ésta: ¿Quién fue, en su opinión, el científico más grande que jamás existió? Y responde que si la pregunta fuera ¿Quién fue el segundo más grande? sería imposible contestar ya que, en su opinión, podrían aspirar por lo menos una docena (Einstein, Rutherford, Bohr, Pasteur o Galileo entre otros).

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Pero como la pregunta se refiere al más grande, entonces opina que no hay problema alguno: la mayoría de los historiadores de la ciencia no dudarían en afirmar que Isaac Newton fue el talento científico más grande que jamás haya visto el mundo. Tenía sus faltas –continúa–: era mal conferenciante, tenía algo de cobarde moral y de llorón autocompasivo y de vez en cuando era víctima de sus depresiones. Pero como científico, concluye Asimov, no tenía igual”. 

Por otra parte, en la obra “The 100”, Michael Hart coloca a Isaac Newton en el número dos de ese curioso ranking de los cien personajes más influyentes en la historia de la humanidad, entre Mahoma como primero y Jesucristo como tercero. Y lo justifica con argumentos contundentes.

Como en todo tipo de cuestiones más o menos subjetivas, las opiniones son discutibles pero parece que en este caso hay coincidencias y quizá con los más críticos podemos llegar al acuerdo de considerar a Isaac Newton entre los científicos más grandes que han existido.

Haré a continuación un esbozo de su vida y de su obra que, obviamente, no podrá ser exhaustiva.

Nació el día de Navidad del año 1642 en Woolsthorpe (Lincolnshire–Inglaterra). Conviene hacer dos curiosos apuntes respecto de ese año:

a) Es el mismo año en que muere otro de los grandes: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) y según dicen algunos con cierto sentido del humor, Dios lo hizo así para que no coexistieran dos inteligencias como esas…

b) Realmente, en nuestro calendario gregoriano ya reformado en 1582, ese día de Navidad inglés está en 1643 porque, como es sabido, en Inglaterra no se aceptó la reforma de Gregorio XIII hasta 1700 por lo que había casi once días de desfase entre ambos calendarios.

El que llegó a ser un hombre universal ya en vida, nació prematuramente, delgado y debilucho hasta llegar a temerse por su vida. Su padre murió poco antes de nacer él (el 6 de octubre) y su madre, que se volvió a casar, dejó a su hijo de tres años al cuidado de su abuela materna. Su padrastro era un reverendo y murió en 1653 por lo que la madre de Isaac regresa con su madre acompañada de tres hijos.

Sobre su infancia se tienen pocos datos. Los primeros provienen de sus últimos años en la escuela. Existen evidencias de que era inteligente y bastante ingenioso con sus manos aunque no parece que mostrara signos de lo genial que llegaría a ser más tarde. Hizo, no obstante, algunos juguetes y otros ingenios mecánicos cuya sola concepción llevaba implícito disponer de capacidades superiores a las que podría tener un muchacho de esas edades.

Su madre le sacó de la escuela para hacerle agricultor, pero su delicada salud unida a su poca aptitud para ello y, sobre todo, a la oportuna intervención de un tío suyo, decidieron que se le preparase para el ingreso en la Universidad. Fue admitido como miembro del Trinity College de Cambridge el 5 de junio de 1661 con 18 años, obteniendo su Bachiller en Artes en 1665.

A los 21 años entra en la esfera de influencia de Isaac Barrow (1630-1677) que fue quien primero reconoció el genio del joven, animándole a estudiar matemáticas y orientándole hacia la óptica. Llegó a ser tal su fe en él, que cuando en 1669 quiso publicar Lecciones Opticae se dirigió a Newton en busca de ayuda.

Una gran peste azotó Londres ese año y las autoridades decidieron cerrar la Universidad de Cambridge. Newton volvió a su casa hasta la primavera de 1667.  

Cuando regresó a la Universidad tenía 24 años y parece ser cierto que ya el “solitario de Woolsthorpe” había sentado firmemente los fundamentos de su obra en los tres grandes campos con los que su nombre se asoció para siempre: el cálculo, la naturaleza de la luz blanca y la gravitación universal. Según él mismo escribió sobre ese periodo (1665-1667): “…es cuando me hallaba en plenitud de mi edad para la invención y me inclinaba hacia las matemáticas y la física más que en ninguna época anterior”.

Una curiosa huella de su paso por esta ciudad es el conocido como “puente del matemático”. Es un pequeño puente de madera que fue diseñado y construido por Newton sin usar ni un solo clavo. Parece ser que muchos años después un grupo de profesores y alumnos quiso averiguar cómo lo había construido y para ello lo desmontaron pieza a pieza. Cuando después quisieron reconstruirlo no tuvieron más remedio que llenar el puente de tornillos y pasadores para que se pudiera sostener.

Nos resulta difícil comprender los niveles de abstracción que necesitó su genio para derrumbar todas las teorías anteriores acerca de los movimientos celestes y para formular la nueva mecánica del universo. Acerca de la famosa anécdota de la manzana, según contó en su vejez, estaba pensando en qué influencia mantenía a la luna en su órbita cuando una manzana le cayó en la cabeza desde el árbol bajo el que se hallaba sentado. Esto le hizo recapacitar que podría ser la misma fuerza de gravitación que actuaba sobre la manzana la que lo hacía sobre la luna adecuadamente disminuida por la distancia.

Newton nunca sintió el menor deseo de mostrar su obra al mundo pues tenía una terrible aversión a la controversia. En 1669 entregó a Barrow un manuscrito en el que incluyó sus decisivos descubrimientos matemáticos sobre “fluxiones” y “fluxiones inversas” que es como denominó al cálculo diferencial e integral. Pues bien, no lo publicó hasta 1711.

El 29 de octubre de 1669, con 26 años, fue nominado Lucasian Professor sucediendo a Isaac Barrow que había sido el primer ocupante de esta Cátedra Lucasiana fundada en 1663 gracias a los fondos regalados por Henry Lucas. Se cree que renunció a ella para que Newton pudiera ocuparla. El estatuto de esta cátedra exigía que tuviera que dar al menos una lección magistral a la semana. Empezó a disertar sobre óptica exponiendo sus descubrimientos, también sobre aritmética y álgebra y sobre “el sistema del mundo”. Las copias escritas de sus clases fueron depositadas en el archivo de la Universidad y no se publicaron hasta 1729. Los hechos de ser mal conferenciante, de tener pocos alumnos y la dificultad del contenido de lo que explicaba posiblemente fueran las causas por las que sus ideas no tuvieran una repercusión inmediata. Tenía 29 años y ya había realizado un cuerpo científico como nadie en aquella época. Pero sin embargo seguía siendo un desconocido, excepto para unos pocos entre los que estaba Barrow que ya se había convencido de estar ante un genio.

Aun cuando huía de la controversia y la discusión, sus ideas eran tan revolucionarias en su tiempo que le acarrearon muchas incomprensiones y ataques por parte de algunos sabios consagrados en aquel momento. Los hubo moderados e impertinentes pero para él los críticos más perturbadores y agudos fueron: Huygens (1631-1699), a quien Newton siempre admiró y consideró “el más elegante de los escritores matemáticos de su época” y Hooke (1635-1703) cuya posición de enfrentamiento a Newton influyó notablemente en la vida de nuestro genio. Parece ser que Hooke había llegado a la conclusión de la existencia de la fuerza de la gravitación pero era incapaz de desarrollar matemáticamente las consecuencias de su teoría. Por eso le comunicó a Newton sus ideas pues consideraba que tenía la habilidad matemática, la capacidad mental y el sosiego suficientes para desarrollarla y demostrarla. Andrade ha escrito que “el malentendido entre estos dos ingleses es uno de los hechos más tristes de la historia científica de la época

Su obra más influyente, la conocida como Los Principia, se titula realmente Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathemática. Fue publicada en 1687 aunque su composición se había iniciado 18 meses antes a instancia e insistencia de Edmund Halley (1656-1742) quien tomó a su cargo la publicación de los 350 ejemplares que se hicieron. No es fácil de entender ni en su época ni ahora aunque todos coinciden en su grandeza. El propio Halley titula así la oda que le dedica antes de comenzar la primera parte: Al muy Ilustre Varón Isaac Newton y a este su trabajo físico matemático, signo egregio de nuestro tiempo y nuestra estirpe. En ella escribe que en lo sucesivo los hombres

            Pueden penetrar en las mansiones de los dioses

            Y escalar las alturas del cielo

Y la acaba diciendo:

            Ningún mortal puede acercarse más a los dioses.

La parte matemática está en la línea de la geometría clásica estricta pues Newton siempre expresó una gran admiración por los geómetras de la antigua Grecia. Kepler es otro autor al que debe mucho esta obra si bien Newton lo nombra una vez en la primera edición y lo elimina en las sucesivas. Será porque Kepler era aun un casi desconocido en aquella época y había muerto unos cincuenta años antes.

La obra consta de tres tomos siendo el tercero el realmente grandioso, el que lo coloca entre los grandes de la ciencia universal. Se titula Sistema del mundo (matemáticamente tratado). Lo inicia así: “En los libros precedentes he expuesto principios de filosofía, no tanto filosóficos como matemáticos, sobre los cuales resulta posible fundamentar nuestros razonamientos en asuntos filosóficos.” Un poco más abajo dice: “Es preciso aun demostrar a partir de esos mismos principios la constitución del sistema del mundo”. Anuncia en el breve prólogo que “solo deberían ser leídas por quienes de antemano se hubieran familiarizado con los principios precedentes.”

Estableció el movimiento de los satélites en torno a los planetas y de los planetas en torno al sol sobre la base de la gravitación universal. Como es sabido, esta idea se expresa con pocas palabras diciendo que toda partícula de materia del universo atrae a toda otra con una fuerza directamente proporcional al producto de sus masas e inversamente proporcional al cuadrado de las distancias de sus centros. Muestra cómo hallar la masa de los planetas en términos de la masa de la tierra; calcula que la densidad de la tierra está entre cinco y seis veces la del agua (se acepta hoy 5’5); demostró cuantitativamente la forma achatada de la tierra calculando que la excentricidad es 1/230 (hoy se acepta 1/294).

La obra, en fin, ocupa unas seiscientas páginas en edición tamaño cuartilla. El libro primero se titula El movimiento de los cuerpos, y el segundo El movimiento de los cuerpos (En medios resistentes)

Newton y Leibniz están asociados por la disputa en torno a la invención del cálculo infinitesimal. La revisión de las cartas y documentos de ambos pone de manifiesto que fue Newton quien lo inició. Pero ello no desmerece el mérito de Leibniz por cuanto que aportó resultados fundamentales para el posterior desarrollo. Newton tuvo una mayor preocupación por el rigor mientras que Leibniz propuso una notación más sugestiva que es la que ha llegado hasta nosotros.

Después de Los Principia Newton parece que se aburre de Cambridge y de su profesorado. Además le sucedieron ciertos acontecimientos no gratos: su madre, a la que se sentía muy ligado, murió en 1689. Dos años después se incendió su laboratorio. En 1693 además de la acusación de plagio en Los Principia que le lanza Hooke, Leibniz se mueve hábilmente para conseguir el reconocimiento en la prioridad de la invención del cálculo y encima tiene diferencias notorias con el astrónomo real Flamsteed. Newton cayó en una profunda melancolía con largos períodos de insomnio, temores de persecución, etc. Pero logra superarlo gracias, seguramente, a su prodigiosa inteligencia. Deseó obtener un puesto político y en marzo de 1696 consigue el de inspector de la Casa de la Moneda pasando a director tres años después. Pasó entonces a vivir en Londres donde “reinó” por más de veinte años dada su fama y su reputación como científico. En 1701 es elegido miembro del Parlamento por la Universidad y nombrado Caballero en 1705, hecho este sin precedentes en la historia de la ciencia. Y en esta serie de nombramientos destaca también el de Presidente vitalicio de la Royal Society acaecido en 1703 una vez muerto Hooke.

En 1704 publica su Opticks que, según Andrade, es uno de los “productos supremos de la mente humana”. En esta obra presenta Newton sus mayores descubrimientos y teorías sobre la luz y el color en un orden lógico pues comienza con ocho definiciones y ocho axiomas. Pero la actividad matemática de Newton durante los años de Londres consistió en establecer su posición contra Leibniz en la discusión sobre la prioridad y la originalidad del cálculo. Todo eso a través de una serie de cartas que Leibniz enviaba a la Royal Society y que eran contestadas y aclaradas por miembros de la institución. También respondió elegantemente a dos problemas planteados por Juan Bernouilli en junio de 1696. Este miembro de la zaga dirigió una circular a los matemáticos europeos desafiándoles a resolverlos en un plazo no superior a seis meses. Newton lo hizo en una tarde. El primero de estos problemas era “mecánico-geométrico” y consistía la encontrar una curva de descendimiento más rápido. La respuesta de Newton fue breve: la “braquistocrona” es una cicloide.

Dos aspectos más de sus trabajos:

Fue un estudioso de la química. Probablemente dedicó tanto tiempo y esfuerzos a la alquimia y a la química como a las ciencias físicas aunque posiblemente con resultados bien distintos teniendo en cuenta que sobre este tema apenas publicó nada. Un pariente suyo, Humphrey Newton, que sería su secretario cuanta que durante el periodo 1685 al 1690 había épocas del año que pasaba mucho tiempo en el laboratorio entusiasmado con lo que estaba haciendo sin salir de allí ni de día ni de noche. Desconocía, no obstante, cuáles eran sus propósitos.

Las cuestiones religiosas y teológicas. Ocuparon lugar entre sus preocupaciones. Incluso hubo una época en la que tuvo más discípulos en este apostolado religioso que en la propia física. Las obras de los Padres de la Iglesia predominaban en su biblioteca. Para él que llegó a establecer cómo se rige el universo, todo el sistema del mundo es obra de un ser todopoderoso e inteligente.

Los últimos años de Newton fueron bastante duros en cuanto a su salud puesto que sufrió una incontinencia de orina, padeció la gota y tuvo cálculos en la vejiga. Murió el 20 de marzo de 1727 y fue enterrado en con un espléndido funeral en la Catedral de Westminster de Londres, donde está su tumba.

Con relación a su carácter, hay unanimidad al considerarlo una persona difícil: antipático, distante, vengativo, misógino, inseguro y arrogante son algunos de los defectos que mencionan quienes le trataron. Por otra parte, era un infalible solucionador de problemas matemáticos, persona de gustos sencillos, de escritura concisa y sobria, piadoso y austero. Pero todo eso es anécdota al lado de su obra. En el epitafio de su tumba, entre otras cosas se dice: “Regocíjense los mortales de que haya existido tal y tan gran ornamento del género humano”.

 

 
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